Social, legal and policy issues
around Internet in Asia



1997.6.10 for PAN Meeting


Izumi Aizu

Principal, Asia Network Research Sdn. Bhd.

GLOCOM and Institute for HyperNetwork Society

izumi@anr.org

http://www.anr.org




Main policy issues and social concernes in Asian countries on Internet:



  • Science and Technology
    Internet as gateway to knowledge
    Empowering people

  • Economic Development
    Internet as booster of economy
    IT as the fastest growing industry sector
    Use IT for higher efficiency for all industries

  • International Community
    Internet as diplomatic tool
    Internet and national and international security

  • Regulation
    Who 'owns' the Internet?
    Who controls the Internet?
    Who are regulated, for what?

  • Content Control
    Why control?
    How to control?
    What to control
    How much does it cost?



Issues:

  • ISP License
    Who gives it to whom?
    How to give?
    be it controled, monopoly or free to enter?

  • Social order and the Net
    "Borderless" world?
    E-money, E-commerce - transcending the border
    money laundering, Tax escape, Mafia activities, Underground market
    Political activitiesanti-government movements, terollists
    Anti-social activities extremists: racial, religeous, sexual....


Positions on Internet Policy and Regulation

ISP ControlRegulatorContent ControlAuthority ModelUserDomain
(96-97)
Japan+MPT+Police Pressfree496,427
Korea+MIC++ICEO/MOCfree47,973
N. Korea++++++++++Mil?
China++++InterAgency
Committee
+++SNA/Xinhua
BC/Press
free
(register)
11,282
Hong Kong+OFTA+Rec & Cult Mn
Press
free24,133
Mongolia+++Min. of Infrafreena
Taiwan+MPT+free30,645
Singapore++++TAS++++SBA
BroadCast
free38,376
Philippines+NTC+free3,117
Malaysia+++MPTE+MOI
Press
free8,541
Buruneifree170
Indonesia++++Pressfree5,262
Thailand+++free6,362
Vietnam++++++Intrior M
Cambodia++++++
Laos++++?
Myammer+++++?PressRegister
India+++?2,176
Sri Lanka+?234
Bangladesh++++Press
Nepal++60
Butan+++
Pakistan386
Maldives+++


RegulatorSubstantive RulesSanctionsMechanism
1.The actor him/herselfPersonal EthicsSelf-sanctionSelf
2.Second pargy controllers i.e., the person acted uponContractual provisionsVarious self-help mechanismsPICS, RSACi,
Filter software
3.Non-hiderarchically organized social forcesSocial normsSocial sactionsCode of Conduct
4.Hierarchically organized non-governmental organizationsOrganization rulesOrganization sanctionsIndustry self-regulation
5.GovernmentsLawState enforcement, coercive sanctionsLaw
Source: How Countries Are Regulating Internet Content by Peng Hwa Ang (tphang@ntu.edu.sg) , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore


  • Cultural dis-order
    Cultural Identity
    Language

  • Is Internet That Powerful?
    Where is the tangible proof, positive or negative?

  • Can you really 'control' the Internet, or control Netizens using it?



  • Japan
    ISP is easy, just 'register' - 1,700 ISPs (1997)
    Min. of Justice is officialy studying wiretapping act including Internet.
    Users/ISPs arrested, procecuted for illegal distribution of hardcore porns

  • Southe Korea
    The first country to have Internet-specific censorship law:
    Electronic Communication Business Law (1995)
    Information & Communication Ethics Office established, to
    Cencor info that may "cause a loss of national sovereignty" or "harm youth"
    Minister of Communication can order information provider to delete/ restrict the material
    One ISP - more than 220,000 deleted messages in 8 months in 1996
    Political speech:
    contact with, expressions of sympathy toward North Korea are forbidden
    Access to North Korean WWW can be procecuted
    Should a South Korean meet a North Korean on the Internet, he would have to report to police within 7 days

  • China
    Following after Singapore's model, but much further
    Only comp. and sci. newsgroups are allowed
    Access is through filters on 4 government-controlled ISPs:
    Ministry of Post and Telecommunications, Ministry of Electronics Industry, State Education Commission, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Pornography, political and linguistic matters censored
    100 Web sites were officially baned in Sep, 1996
    English-language site: The Wall Street Journal, CNN. Chinese-language sites from Taiwan, Sites by Hong Kong newspapers, anti-Beijing publications. Overseas dissident sites: Tibet and Xinjiang's independence movement.
    Sexually explicit sites,Playboy and Penthouse. Some sites unblocked.
    Law(1996) bars international calls to Internet. Violators face first a warning then a fine of up to US$2,000
    China passed a law that compelled all economic news by foreign companies be distributed only through Xinhua Agency

  • Singapore
    SBA monitoring the harmful contnet: Sexual, political, religeous, racial
    ISPs requested to filter specified sources of information, using Proxy servers

  • Indonesia
    Indonesians are turning to the Internet as an alternative source of information as political unrest spreads and authorities tighten supervision of newspapers and television
    Information Minister Harmoko said Government had no plans to regulate the Internet (Mar. 1996)
    Activists said that did not mean authorities were not monitoring

  • Malyasia
    No Censorship of the Internet (in MSC)
    The government would act only if illegal or offensivematerials like pornography were distributed within Malaysia (MIMOS)

  • Philippines
    National Telecommunications Commission
    (Dept of Trnasportation and Communications )
    All registered Value-added service providers are requested by Dept. of Justice to bar/block entry of Pornographic material throught Internet (July 1996)
    For special protection of children

  • Vietnam
    Interior Ministry has the power to monitor contents, including email, Internet users legally responsible for any information they provide or receive

  • Myanmer
    All modems, faxes should be registered - or 7 years in Prison (no enforcement/implementations reported)
    Democratic Movement using Web from outside the country, Government has its own Web in US.

  • UAE
    Censor Internet using Singapore model:
    use proxy servers as filters
    issue Internet access licenses through the police



For reference:
How Countries Are Regulating Internet Content (http://www.PanAsia.org.sg)

Peng Hwa Ang (tphang@ntu.edu.sg) Nanyang Technological University, Singapore




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