Social, legal and policy issues
around Internet in Asia
1997.6.10 for PAN Meeting
Principal, Asia Network Research Sdn. Bhd.
GLOCOM and Institute for HyperNetwork Society
Main policy issues and social concernes in Asian countries on Internet:
- Science and Technology
Internet as gateway to knowledge
- Economic Development
Internet as booster of economy
IT as the fastest growing industry sector
Use IT for higher efficiency for all industries
- International Community
Internet as diplomatic tool
Internet and national and international security
Who 'owns' the Internet?
Who controls the Internet?
Who are regulated, for what?
- Content Control
How to control?
What to control
How much does it cost?
- ISP License
Who gives it to whom?
How to give?
be it controled, monopoly or free to enter?
- Social order and the Net
E-money, E-commerce - transcending the border
money laundering, Tax escape, Mafia activities, Underground market
Political activitiesanti-government movements, terollists
Anti-social activities extremists: racial, religeous, sexual....
Positions on Internet Policy and Regulation
|ブ||ISP Control||Regulator||Content Control||Authority Model||User||Domain|
|Hong Kong||+||OFTA||+||Rec & Cult Mn|
|Mongolia||+++||Min. of Infra||ブ||ブ||free||na|
Source: How Countries Are Regulating Internet Content
by Peng Hwa Ang (firstname.lastname@example.org) , Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
|1.||The actor him/herself||Personal Ethics||Self-sanction||Self|
|2.||Second pargy controllers i.e., the person acted upon||Contractual provisions||Various self-help mechanisms||PICS, RSACi,|
|3.||Non-hiderarchically organized social forces||Social norms||Social sactions||Code of Conduct|
|4.||Hierarchically organized non-governmental organizations||Organization rules||Organization sanctions||Industry self-regulation|
|5.||Governments||Law||State enforcement, coercive sanctions||Law|
- Cultural dis-order
- Is Internet That Powerful?
Where is the tangible proof, positive or negative?
- Can you really 'control' the Internet, or control Netizens using it?
ISP is easy, just 'register' - 1,700 ISPs (1997)
Min. of Justice is officialy studying wiretapping act including Internet.
Users/ISPs arrested, procecuted for illegal distribution of hardcore porns
- Southe Korea
The first country to have Internet-specific censorship law:
Electronic Communication Business Law (1995)
Information & Communication Ethics Office established, to
Cencor info that may "cause a loss of national sovereignty" or "harm youth"
Minister of Communication can order information provider to delete/ restrict the material
One ISP - more than 220,000 deleted messages in 8 months in 1996
contact with, expressions of sympathy toward North Korea are forbidden
Access to North Korean WWW can be procecuted
Should a South Korean meet a North Korean on the Internet, he would
have to report to police within 7 days
Following after Singapore's model, but much further
Only comp. and sci. newsgroups are allowed
Access is through filters on 4 government-controlled ISPs:
Ministry of Post and Telecommunications, Ministry of Electronics Industry, State Education Commission, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Pornography, political and linguistic matters censored
100 Web sites were officially baned in Sep, 1996
English-language site: The Wall Street Journal, CNN. Chinese-language sites from Taiwan, Sites by Hong Kong newspapers, anti-Beijing publications. Overseas dissident sites: Tibet and Xinjiang's independence movement.
Sexually explicit sites,Playboy and Penthouse. Some sites unblocked.
Law(1996) bars international calls to Internet. Violators face first a warning then a fine of up to US$2,000
China passed a law that compelled all economic news by foreign companies be distributed only through Xinhua Agency
SBA monitoring the harmful contnet: Sexual, political, religeous, racial
ISPs requested to filter specified sources of information, using Proxy servers
Indonesians are turning to the Internet as an alternative source of information as political unrest spreads and authorities tighten supervision of newspapers and television
Information Minister Harmoko said Government had no plans to regulate the Internet (Mar. 1996)
Activists said that did not mean authorities were not monitoring
No Censorship of the Internet (in MSC)
The government would act only if illegal or offensivematerials like pornography were distributed within Malaysia (MIMOS)
National Telecommunications Commission
(Dept of Trnasportation and Communications )
All registered Value-added service providers are requested by Dept. of Justice
to bar/block entry of Pornographic material throught Internet (July 1996)
For special protection of children
Interior Ministry has the power to monitor contents, including email,
Internet users legally responsible for any information they provide or receive
All modems, faxes should be registered - or 7 years in Prison (no enforcement/implementations reported)
Democratic Movement using Web from outside the country, Government has its own Web in US.
Censor Internet using Singapore model:
use proxy servers as filters
issue Internet access licenses through the police
How Countries Are Regulating Internet Content (http://www.PanAsia.org.sg)
Peng Hwa Ang (email@example.com) Nanyang Technological University, Singapore